DEFINING AND DELIMITING ENGINEERING PROBLEMS
Analyze a above all-around claiming to specify qualitative and quantitative belief and constraints for solutions that annual for civic needs and wants.
Watch how it’s acclimated at JPL: To affect a groundwater cleanup activity guided by the Comprehensive Ecology Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, NASA had to abstraction and ascertain the botheration afore they could move advanced with developing solutions for cleanup. According to Groundwater Cleanup Activity Manager Steve Slaten, “NASA is amenable for a all-embracing groundwater cleanup that is a aftereffect of accomplished decay auctioning practices that go aback to World War II back the Army was operating JPL and developing rockets for the military. Liquid wastes — aggregate from toilets, to the analytic labs, chemicals, charwoman solvents and a basic of rocket propellant alleged perchlorate — are now in the abysmal arena water. It’s actual important that we apple-pie up this botheration so that our neighbors accept admission to this resource.”
Use it in the classroom: Baptize Filtration ChallengeChallenge your acceptance to archetypal the processes NASA acclimated to ascertain cleanup belief for attenuated groundwater. They can again advance with designing and implementing a filtration arrangement abundant like the engineering teams alive on JPL’s groundwater cleanup project.
Expand on the standard: All-around problems, such as aridity and baptize shortages, a charge for apple-pie energy, altitude change, and sea akin acceleration can accept bounded impacts and appeal bounded solutions. Acceptance in aerial academy will ascertain belief in assessable means that will crave that acceptance conduct measurements, and qualitative means that will acquiesce acceptance to appraise added aspects of architecture success such as association attitudes or amusing responses. Additionally, acceptance will analyze the attached constraints a band-aid charge meet, including cost, size, weight and performance, as able-bodied as a fit aural society.
OPTIMIZING THE DESIGN SOLUTION
Design a band-aid to a circuitous real-world botheration by breaking it bottomward into smaller, added acquiescent problems that can be apparent through engineering.
Watch how it’s acclimated at JPL: The sun is an accomplished antecedent of energy, but to calmly accouter that ability is a circuitous problem. Solar ability building that use concentrators, or reflectors, to accelerate sunlight to a axial belfry can be actual costly. Dr. Gani Ganapathi, a actinic architect who leads the Thermal Propulsion and Materials accumulation at JPL, is alive on bringing those costs down. Lowering the amount of solar concentrators in a action that involves breaking bottomward the botheration into acquiescent pieces that can be apparent through engineering. Ganapathi explains, “Most bodies are accustomed with solar photovoltaic, but solar thermal is a actual able alternating technology area abeyant for breeding ability always exists.”
Use it in the classroom: Anticipate Green: Utilizing Renewable Solar EnergyFrom NASA abstracts to application, acceptance appraise bounded ablaze altitude that will actuate the adjustment and accommodation of solar panels by breaking the circuitous affair of switching to cleaner activity into smaller, added acquiescent components, such as amount considerations and solar ability area selection.
Expand on the standard: Building on practices developed in beforehand years acceptance will accumulate advice from multiple, absolute sources, as able-bodied as draw on their own ability of accurate attempt above-mentioned to brainstorming solutions. Due to the complication of problems, as able-bodied as solutions, designs and the belief for free the success of a band-aid may charge to be burst bottomward into smaller, added acquiescent genitalia that can be systematically tested. This ability beggarly that apprentice teams attending at alone apparatus of a beyond band-aid and assignment to advance that accurate element. Acceptance may accept to accede prioritizing belief and authoritative trade-offs in their designs. Examples of trade-offs ability accommodate abbreviation weight by application a lighter, but beneath able material, or application a added cher basic that impacts the annual accessible for accession component.
DEVELOPING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Evaluate a band-aid to a circuitous real-world botheration based on prioritized belief and trade-offs that annual for a ambit of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as able-bodied as accessible social, cultural, and ecology impacts.
Use a computer simulation to archetypal the appulse of proposed solutions to a circuitous real-world botheration with abundant belief and constraints on interactions aural and amid systems accordant to the problem.
Watch how it’s acclimated at JPL: Designing aircraft involves prioritizing belief and authoritative trade-offs based on ecology and ability constraints faced by engineers. NASA has been exploring Mars back the aboriginal 1960s and developing those missions is no baby task, demography abounding years and bags of bodies alive calm to complete. Dr. Sarah Milkovich, a science arrangement engineer, says, “One important aspect of arrangement engineering is to anticipate about what do you absolutely charge your arrangement do to afore you amount out how it’s activity to do that.”
Use it in the classroom: Marsbound! Mission to the Red PlanetStudents simulate JPL mission architecture by bringing all aspects of a mission to fruition, apery the challenges adverse JPL engineers. Acceptance charge break aural budget, as able-bodied as accumulation and activity limitations, while accomplishing the best science possible, analytical tradeoffs and authoritative sacrifices forth the way.
Expand on the standards: (HS-ETS1-3) Circuitous real-world problems will generally advance to architecture solutions with abounding belief for success. As acceptance abstruse in beforehand grades, assorted designs may all accept the adapted qualities of a solution. However, the ambition of engineering is not to artlessly architecture a solution, but to architecture the best solution. Acceptance will booty a analytical access to evaluating the assorted belief of a solution. This may accommodate a scoring arrangement acclimated to amount achievement adjoin assertive criteria. Acceptance will acceptable accept to accomplish compromises back evaluating adjoin the constraints of their design—a heavier, sturdier actual may be stronger, but it can additionally drive up costs and mass. Iterative testing—the again action of modeling, testing, analyzing, refining, and retesting — will advance to an bigger
(HS-ETS1-4)In accession to concrete models, computer simulations can abetment in the visualizing, testing and evaluating of a architecture solution. Computer simulations can absorb application computer-aided-design and computer-aided-manufacturing software (CAD and CAM) to actualize and adapt designs, programming an app to archetypal assorted inputs on a design, inputting abstracts into a spreadsheet to account and blueprint the costs of aggressive designs, and application presentation software to explain the capability of a assertive design. Acceptance will use these accoutrement to adumbrate how a accurate band-aid will affect altered elements of a problem.
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