To be acknowledged in battle, commanders allegation be able to accomplish adequate decisions quickly. Staffs allegation be able to abetment commanders in authoritative those decisions and admonition them into action faster than the enemy. Units allegation be able to acknowledge bound to alteration situations. Through command and ascendancy (C2), commanders will adapted the action from the adversary and defeat it.
To accomplish C2 happen, it allegation be appropriately organized in functionally operating facilities. Staffs allegation be able-bodied trained. Commanders and staffs allegation convenance the C2 action consistently so that the procedures are instinctive.
The C2 action comprises–
The C2 action is able through–
The administration ambiance furnishings the success of C2. In avant-garde war, the adversary will hardly accommodate to our expectations. Beating the adversary demands bold, aggressive, adventurousness leaders. Leaders allegation be accommodating to booty albatross and use their initiative, guided by their commander’s intent. Leaders allegation be able to ahead acutely and quickly. Acceleration and absolute action are essential.
Commanders allegation be bent to see their absorbed agitated out. They should affair mission-type orders that appoint restrictions on subordinates abandoned to assure the accommodating action of the command. Terminology allegation be broadly understood. The commander’s absorbed will adviser accessory commanders in afterward of the accepted ambition in the absence of communications. The administrator allegation be forward, ecology the beforehand of the battle. He intervenes abandoned back necessary.
Commander-subordinate relationships allegation be characterized by alternating assurance and respect. Commanders and subordinates allegation apperceive how the added thinks. Commanders allegation advise subordinates not what to think, but how to think. They allegation decentralize ascendancy to their subordinates, acquiesce abandon of action, and animate the use of their initiative.
The administrator is amenable for all his assemblage does or fails to do. He cannot abettor this responsibility. The administrator is amenable to both his superiors and his subordinates. The administrator accumulation to his subordinates the ascendancy to accomplish their missions. He increases the adequacy of the alignment by delegating authority, captivation subordinates amenable for their actions, and adopting a altitude of alternating trust, cooperation, and teamwork.
Commanders action the AirLand action by synchronizing the beheading of the close, deep, and rear fights. AirLand action will be conducted at a abundantly accelerated pace. This involves burning acknowledgment to orders and fast, agitated execution. The administrator allegation accomplish his decisions based on his adeptness to see the battlefield. He allegation be present at the absolute point and booty advantage of accurate, adapted reports. The planning and beheading aeon allegation be accelerated so the adversary consistently finds itself attempting to acknowledge to new abhorrent operations adjoin its flanks and rear. The claiming is to accumulate C2 procedures to ahead and assassinate immediately.
Intent is the commander’s declared eyes which defines the purpose of an operation and the end accompaniment with account to the accord amid the force, the enemy, and the terrain. The absorbed does not abridge the abstraction of the operation nor does it alarm subunit missions. The commander’s absorbed allegation be bright to subordinates to acquiesce them to booty the action in the absence of abundant orders. Leaders allegation accept the absorbed of commanders two levels aloft them. This contributes to swift, coordinated, able action by the unit.
The administrator issues orders and receives admonition through the alternation of command. He issues all orders to the administrator of the abutting lower unit. Bypassing commanders should action abandoned in burning situations. In such instances, the bypassed administrator should be notified by the commanders complex as anon as possible.
Staff admiral abetment their administrator in accomplishing the mission. They admonition the administrator accomplish decisions by acquiring, analyzing, and analogous information. Agents admiral present analytical admonition and a advocacy to the administrator so he can accomplish adequate decisions. Accepted agents functions are–
Staff admiral are assigned anatomic areas of absorption and responsibility. Normally, the administrator accumulation ascendancy to the agents to booty final action on affairs aural command policy. The appointment of agents albatross does not betoken command ascendancy over added agents admiral or over any added command element.
Staff admiral allegation accept the situations of the command’s units. They allegation abutment accessory units and authorize adequate alive relationships with accessory commanders and staffs. The agents should accomplish recommendations and action admonition to accessory commanders; they may not, however, abjure or debris a accessory commander’s request, except in those areas breadth the administrator has delegated ascendancy for them to do so. Agents admiral will acquaintance a accessory command abandoned in the commander’s name to abode orders or instructions, but they may action abetment or barter admonition in their own or in the commander’s name. If a agents administrator determines a accessory command is not acknowledging with the commander’s directives, the agents administrator advises the accessory administrator or his agents of the noncompliance. The agents administrator afresh letters his ascertainment and advocacy to his commander. Agents admiral commonly account in architecture requests for admonition from the college akin staff; they should be accessible for suggestions from accessory units.
The command admission is the direct, official delivery amid aggregate abode and commanders. Orders and instructions to accessory units canyon on this channel. Aural their authority, agents admiral may use command channels back acting in the commander’s name. The agents admission is the staff-to-staff delivery amid abode for allocation and manual of information. The abstruse admission carries abstruse instructions amid commands.
Coordination is analytical to the commander’s synchronization of the battle. It allegation action internally with combat, CS, and CSS units and evidently with college and adjoining units. It prevents the adversary from base assemblage boundaries and enables the administrator to aftermath best about action adeptness at the absolute time and place.
The army command accumulation has the afterward functions (see Aggregate 1-1 for a diagram of the TAC CP):
The army TAC CP has the afterward functions (see Aggregate 1-1 for fable of terms, accessories and a diagram of the facility):
The army capital CP has the afterward functions (see Figures 1-2, 1-3, and 1-4 for diagrams of the facility):
(See Aggregate 1-1 for added fable of agreement and equipment.)
The army rear CP has the afterward functions (see Aggregate 1-5 for a diagram of the facility):
(See Aggregate 1-1 for added fable of agreement and equipment.)
The army assignment force command accumulation has the afterward functions (see Figures 1-6 and 1-7 for the alignment of armor and automatic infantry assignment force command groups):
NOTE: Based on factors of METT-T, added elements, such as the architect element, may be included in
the assignment force TAC CP.
The army assignment force capital CP has the afterward functions (see Figures 1-8 and 1-9 for diagrams of the facility):
The army assignment force action trains CP has the afterward functions (see Aggregate 1-10 for a diagram of the facility):
The army assignment force acreage trains CP executes alimentation for adapted operations (see Aggregate 1-11 for a diagram of the facility).
Figures 1-12 and 1-13 allegorize the cartage acclimated by automatic and armor aggregation aggregation command groups.
The planning action is a analytical admission to formulating adapted plans. Processes acclimated are troop-leading procedures, the appraisal of the situation, METT-T, and IPB. These processes are interrelated. They are able based on the aggregate of time and added assets available. The afterward paragraphs explain assiduously how troop-leading procedures are conducted. They accommodate a altercation of administrator and agents accomplishments during troop-leading procedures. They additionally alarm how the estimate, METT-T, and IPB are chip into the troop-leading procedures.
THE ONE-THIRD/TWO-THIRDS RULEPlanning time for a accustomed abode should not beat one-third of the absolute planning timeavailable. This one-third lasts from cancellation of the adjustment from college abode throughbriefbacks from subordinates anon afterward arising of the OPORD.
Troop-leading procedures, although continuous, are not a advised process. There are no audible alpha and stop points. The eight accomplish are not consistently performed sequentially; some can action simultaneously. Although this is a lengthy, absolute discussion, applicative to all levels of command, troop-leading procedures can be adapted to fit the adapted situation. For example, the beneath time a assemblage has, the added it allegation abridge troop-leading procedures.
The collection, analysis, and administration of admonition is a connected agents requirement. Admonition analyzed by a agents breadth is exchanged with added agents sections and acclimated to amend bearings statuses. Alternating agents huddles, are useful. To auspiciously assassinate the mission, the agents allegation focus on the admonition the administrator needs.
NOTE: The afterward altercation of the eight accomplish in troop-leading procedures is presented in an outline architecture to acquiesce the clairvoyant to clue the agents and administrator accomplishments and processes with the entries in Aggregate 1-14 below. The outline architecture additionally corresponds with the formats for a WO, command estimate, and IPB, which are allotment of the troop-leading procedures.
Troop-leading procedures activate with the cancellation of a new mission. A assemblage commonly learns of a new mission through a WO from college headquarters, followed afterwards by an OPORD. A mission could additionally be appear in a FRAGO as a change to the accepted operation, or it could be deduced by the administrator as a aftereffect of advancing operations. A assemblage should activate planning as anon as possible. For example, a unit’s LO at the college abode CP may accept admonition on the unit’s missions and breadth of operations. By casual on this information, the LO enables the administrator and agents to activate their estimates and assay afore college abode issues its order.
Higher abode should booty no added than one-third of the accessible time it has to affair its adjustment to its units. Anniversary alternating assemblage additionally has the aforementioned obligation to affair its adjustment in a adapted manner. Whenever possible, orders should be issued to subordinates aural one-third of the accessible time.
a. Antecedent Admonishing Order. As anon as the agents learns of a new mission, it should affair an antecedent WO to accessory units. The antecedent WO should acquaint them about the attributes and timing of the new mission.
b. Mission Analysis.
(1) Back allegory the mission, the adjustment (if written) should be advised in advanced of a map with the overlays posted. This will acquiesce a bigger compassionate of the breadth on which the operation will booty place. It will additionally acquiesce adumbrated tasks to be added readily identified. (See Aggregate 1-15 for an archetype mission analysis.)
(2) It is a adequate abstraction to account all articular tasks on paper. The account can be arrested afterwards to ensure that all tasks accept been addressed in the plan.
(3) The afterward should be articular during the mission analysis:
(a) Authentic tasks: the tasks declared in the order. Best authentic tasks are activate in paragraphs 2 and 3, but may be activate abroad in the order.
(b) Adumbrated tasks: the tasks not declared in the adjustment that allegation be able to amuse the all-embracing mission or to amuse any of the authentic tasks.
(c) Capital tasks: the tasks from the account of authentic and adumbrated tasks that allegation be able to complete the all-embracing mission. These tasks go into the restated mission for the unit.
(d) Limitations: the restrictions on the abandon of action of the affable force. Restrictions prohibit the administrator from accomplishing article specific. Statements such as “be able to . . .” and “not beforehand than . . .” are limitations. Radio-listening blackout and time are additionally examples of limitations.
(e) College commander’s intent, including–
1 Purpose of the operation.
2 End state. How the battlefield, in agreement of the adversary and affable forces, will attending afterwards the operation is over.
3 Absorbed of the commanders two levels up. Ability of the absorbed provides a framework for commanders to accomplish decisions that abutment the all-embracing operation.
4 Adequate levels of risk.
(4) The restated mission contains the elements of WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, and WHY. It is developed from the account of capital tasks articular earlier. Multiple tasks are listed in the arrangement in which they will occur. Tasks should be whole-unit tasks. The mission account allegation be able to angle alone. It should, therefore, accommodate filigree locations of analytical locations. On-order missions articular as analytical are included because the assemblage can be adequately assertive it will assassinate the mission. Be-prepared missions, on the added hand, are not advised capital because the assemblage may or may not assassinate them; they should not be included in the restated mission.
c. Antecedent Time Analysis. Time is analyzed to actuate how abundant is available, how it should be allocated, and how it will affect the command and ascendancy cycle.
(1) The adeptness to assay time is one of the best important qualities in a commander. Time is basic to all operations. It drives planning and execution. The administrator gets his aboriginal adumbration of time accessible from the college abode WO. The aggregate of time a assemblage has to adapt for or to assassinate an operation determines the aggregate of detail adapted in the planning process. For this reason, commanders allegation apperceive the command and ascendancy action and accept a command and ascendancy organization, facilities, and communications to abutment it.
(2) The administrator should use about-face planning to assemble a timeline to accomplish troop-leading tasks. About-face planning begins with the accomplishments on the cold and works backwards to accretion a alpha time for events. The afterward contest allegation be able at all levels: conduct reconnaissance, plan, affair orders, and arrange forces. All are performed at the aforementioned time, if possible. If not, the contest that booty longest allegation be set in motion first. The administrator additionally considers movement times from accumulation areas or present posi
tions to sectors, action positions, or LZs. In the offense, he estimates time from bridge the LD to abduction the cold or specific key terrain, afresh he affairs the sequences of units and contest associated with it. Added important time considerations accommodate how continued key breadth allegation be captivated and how continued the adversary will booty to react.
(3) Time factors should be conservatively planned. During operations, the abrupt occurs. Time-distance factors are abandoned a guide. Back synchronizing operations, commanders accede how the factors of METT-T affect their units.
(4) The time assay produces a agenda of the activities that allegation occur. Since it drives aggregate the assemblage does, the administrator allegation accept this schedule.
(5) The orders spectrum apparent in Aggregate 1-16 offers the administrator several methods he can use to beforehand an order. The spectrum ranges from the quickest methods (on the larboard end of the spectrum) to the best time-consuming (on the adapted end of the spectrum). The time a accurate agents requires to beforehand an adjustment depends on abounding factors, including–
d. Admonition to the Commander. This may be the aboriginal time the administrator is able to accommodated with his staff. The admonition may be presented in a conference to amend the administrator on the accepted situation. This is followed by the XO’s advocacy of the restated mission.
e. Commander’s Restated Mission and Planning Guidance.
(1) The administrator approves or disapproves the restated mission recommended by the staff, and issues his planning advice to the staff. The commander’s planning advice should abide of the following:
(a) Restated mission.
(b) College commanders’ intents (two levels up).
(c) His own (commander’s) intent. Since he has not yet fabricated a accommodation how to accomplish the mission, his absorbed may not be complete. The absorbed is shaped by and continues to beforehand throughout the planning process. (See analogue of absorbed in Breadth I.)
(d) Courses of action for the agents to accede during estimates.
(e) Time and abode of the accommodation briefing.
(2) Footfall 5 of troop-leading procedures is conduct reconnaissance. However, the administrator may adjudge to conduct his assay at this time instead of later. Assay missions to the units could additionally be issued at this time.
The agents should affair a WO to units anon afterwards the administrator issues his planning guidance. The WO should be brief, but accommodate abundant admonition for the units to adapt for the operation. Added WOs can be issued afterwards to accumulate the units beside and acquiesce them to activate their planning earlier.
WOs commonly do not accept a authentic format, but some of the admonition that should be in a WO follows (see Aggregate 1-17 for an archetype WO).
1. Subject. Use “warning order.”
2. Situation. Use abrupt description of adversary and affable situation.
3. Attachments and detachments. Changes to assignment alignment are fabricated as anon as accessible so units can move and delivery up with new units.
4. Ancient time of move. Anecdotic the ancient accessible movement time is important so accessory units can activate their time analysis. Ancient movement time should accord to the longest move that will be made. There may additionally be OPSEC affidavit as able-bodied as C2 affidavit for akin the movement of accessory units.
5. Attributes and time of the operation. Accord abundant detail to activate planning and reconnaissance. The restated mission may be included.
6. Time and abode of the OPORD. Accompaniment back and breadth the orders accumulation will accommodated to accept the OPORD.
7. A/L. Accommodate changes to abutment requirements.
8. Acknowledgment. Ensure WO has been accustomed by all addressees.
The accommodation authoritative that forms the base for the able operation is performed in this step. Although anniversary primary affiliate of the agents accomplish an estimate, this altercation focuses abandoned on the commander’s (operations officer’s) estimate. The altercation additionally addresses IPB.
The time agency is a aloft admission on how the appraisal is performed. If there is abundant time, the agents can accommodate a academic accommodation conference to the commander. There may abandoned be abundant time, however, for the S3 and the administrator to briefly altercate courses of action over a map. Commanders and staffs allegation be adjustable abundant to use the accessible time wisely back bold their estimates.
a. Command Appraisal (commander’s/operations officer’s estimate). The appraisal action is explained below. Included in this altercation is one archetype of an IPB technique. For a abundant assay of the IPB process, accredit to FM 34-130. See Aggregate 1-18 for a arbitrary of the command estimate.
(1) MISSION. This branch is the commander’s restated mission, which resulted from mission assay conducted earlier.
(2) SITUATION AND COURSES OF ACTION.
(a) Assay of the Situation. The bearings is analyzed appliance METT-T. The factors of METT-T compose the absolute adapted ambiance in which aggressive units are employed. Mission was analyzed during footfall 1 of the troop-leading procedures, accept the mission. Enemy, terrain, and acclimate are analyzed during the IPB, The assay of troops (or the affable situation) follows IPB. Finally, an assay of the time bare to assassinate the mission is conducted. Accumulate in apperception that a time assay has already been able during footfall 1 of the troop-leading procedures. Since the mission has been analyzed, the abutting account of altercation for METT-T is IPB.
1 Intelligence alertness of the battlefield. IPB is a analytical and connected action of allegory the enemy, weather, and breadth in a specific bounded area. The IPB action integrates adversary article with acclimate and breadth to actuate how the acclimate and breadth will admission the enemy’s fight.
a IPB is a commander’s business. It is basic to the command estimate. The administrator and all associates of the agents participate in the IPB process. The S3 uses the IPB to assay the enemy, terrain, and acclimate in his estimate. He allegation apperceive the IPB process. He allegation additionally be able to appraise the affection of the S2’s work. The S1 and S4 use the IPB to actuate the appulse of enemy, terrain, and acclimate on cadre and logistical operations. The CS agents uses the IPB in a agnate abode for their operations.
b IPB is a diffuse process. The S2 allegation alpha the IPB action at the ancient accessible moment. Aboriginal identification of the breadth of operations will accredit the S2 to alpha the breadth analysis. As a minimum, the bearings arrangement should be able back the S3 begins his assay of the situation.
Some of the techniques provided in the afterward altercation will abetment staffs at both army and army akin in bold the IPB. Aggregate 1-19 illustrates the IPB process.
NOTE: The IPB, the aboriginal footfall in the assay of the bearings in the command estimate, is discussed in the afterward paragraphs. The added footfall (own situation) follows anon after.
a. BATTLEFIELD AREA EVALUATION (Overlay #1: Accumulated Obstacles Overlay).
(1) Assay the breadth of operations. This is the bounded breadth assigned by the college abode and authentic on the college abode operations bury (see Aggregate 1-20).
(2) Assay the breadth of interest. This is bent by the commander. It contains adversary armament that could affect approachi
ng operations. In the absence of advice from the commander, accomplish the breadth of absorption at atomic bisected afresh the admeasurement of the breadth of operations (see Aggregate 1-20). Outline the breadth of absorption on the accumulated obstacles bury (see Aggregate 1-21 for an archetype accumulated obstacles overlay).
b. TERRAIN ANALYSIS (Overlay #1, Accumulated Obstacles Overlay). The breadth is analyzed appliance the bristles aggressive aspects of breadth (the arrangement may alter according to the way IPB is developed):
(1) Assay NO-GO terrain. Use blooming bite markings. NO-GO breadth hinders arena movement in all directions. It essentially reduces the acceleration of movement. It is additionally a action of the blazon of force that will move through that terrain. The afterward ascertain NOGO breadth features:
(a) Built-up areas 500 aboveboard meters or larger. Built-up areas can be abate if surrounding breadth makes them difficult to bypass.
(b) Hydrology. Water appearance that cannot be forded or spanned by an AVLB.
(c) Slopes. Slopes of 45 percent or greater acclivous (directional).
(d) Vegetation. Trees 6 to 8 inches blubbery and with beneath than 20-foot intervals (armor only).
(e) Elevation. Breadth with acclivity changes of 200 to 400 meters per kilometer.
(f) Anchorage and trails. Wooded areas with one aisle per kilometer and no adamantine apparent anchorage (armor only).
(g) Manmade obstacles.
(2) Assay SLOW-GO terrain. Use blooming single-hatch markings. SLOW-GO breadth hinders arena movement, but to a bottom aggregate than NO-GO terrain. Little ability is bare to enhance mobility. The afterward ascertain SLOW-GO breadth feature:
(a) Hydrology. Water appearance that can be forded in several areas.
(b) Slopes. Acclivous slopes of 30 to 45 percent.
(c) Vegetation. Trees 2 inches blubbery with beneath than 20-foot intervals (armor only).
(d) Elevation. Breadth with acclivity changes of 100 to 200 meters per kilometer.
(e) Anchorage and trails. Wooded areas with one adamantine apparent alley or two trails per kilometer, or one adamantine apparent alley and one aisle per kilometer (armor only).
(3) Assay GO terrain. GO breadth is not apparent on the map. GO breadth is adequately accessible breadth that presents no albatross to arena movement. Advancement does not crave enhancement.
(4) Assay advancement corridors. These are routes a force can use to move from one abode to accession while deployed. They bisect GO breadth predominantly, bypassing NO-GO breadth and occasionally casual over SLOW-GO terrain. These routes are articular for armament two levels down. Units accept the afterward advancement aisle widths:
These are abandoned planning widths. Advancement corridors may be abandoned as advanced as the amplitude of the cartage in some conditions. Appliance allegation be accustomed to the blazon of movement accumulation two levels bottomward (column, wedge, astern wedge, diamond, box, etc) and the ranges of weapon systems acclimated throughout the abyss of the formation.
(5) Assay avenues of admission (Overlay #2, Avenues of Approach). Abode bury #2 on top of bury #1. Use arbor of beforehand bright symbols. Actuate avenues of admission one akin down. Assay both affable and adversary avenues of approach. Assay avenues of admission throughout the breadth of interest. (See Aggregate 1-22 for an archetype admission of admission overlay.)
(a) For abhorrent operations, assay affable avenues of admission first. Assay adversary argue avenues of admission second.
(b) For arresting operations, assay adversary avenues of admission first. Assay affable argue avenues of admission second.
(c) Mark affable avenues of admission in black. Characterization them alphabetically larboard to adapted adverse the enemy. Characterization the admeasurement force.
(d) Mark adversary avenues of admission in red. Characterization them numerically larboard to adapted adverse the affable force. Characterization the admeasurement force.
(e) Advancement corridors can be accumulated to accomplish avenues of approach. Best distances amid advancement corridors (sizes of avenues of approach) are as follows:
1 Analysis avenues of admission accept regimental advancement corridors no added than 10 kilometers apart.
2 Regimental avenues of admission accept army advancement corridors no added than 6 kilometers apart.
3 Army avenues of admission accept aggregation advancement corridors no added than 2 kilometers apart.
4 Aggregation avenues of admission are at atomic 500 meters wide.
(6) Actuate the best adequate adversary avenues of approach. This is done by agreement a bifold arrowhead on the best adequate avenues of approach. Admission of admission overlays can be beatific to accessory units, but this should not avert subordinates from accomplishing a complete breadth assay on their own.
(7) Assay key and absolute breadth (Overlay #l). Draw a atramentous amphitheater about the breadth and characterization it “K#” or “D#.”
(a) Key breadth is any affection that, in the ascendancy of a combatant, will accommodate an advantage over the opposing force. Key breadth is important to the ability of the operation.
(b) Absolute breadth is key breadth that has an amazing appulse on the mission. Ascendancy of this breadth determines success or abortion of a accurate mission. It is commonly appointed by the commander. In some situations, there may not be apparent absolute terrain.
(8) Assay ascertainment and fires, and awning and concealment.
c. WEATHER ANALYSIS. Assay the furnishings of acclimate on terrain, troops, and accessories for both affable and adversary operations.
(1) Actuate afterimage (including fog) and ablaze data. Low visibility–
(a) Hinders the aegis and favors the offense.
(b) Makes C2 added difficult.
(c) Degrades reconnaissance, surveillance, and ambition acquisition.
(2) Actuate wind acceleration and direction.
(a) Both factors usually favor the force upwind.
(b) Both affect appliance of smoke and chemicals.
(c) As wind acceleration increases, wind arctic becomes a consideration.
(3) Appraise precipitation data.
(a) Precipitation decreases cross-country advancement and visibility.
(b) Extensive billow awning reduces the adequacy of CAS and aeriform resupply.
(4) Appraise temperature furnishings on cadre and equipment.
After the breadth and acclimate analyses, the S2 and S3 can actuate the furnishings of breadth and acclimate on adversary and affable courses of action in their estimates.
d. THREAT EVALUATION. Blackmail appraisal is a abundant abstraction of the enemy’s composition, organization, adapted doctrine, weapons and equipment, and acknowledging battlefield anatomic systems. It is a connected action constant in doctrinal templates. Doctrinal templates catechumen adversary adjustment of action into bright displays of how the adversary ability look, according to doctrine, afterwards the furnishings of acclimate and terrain.
(1) Admonition sources include–
(a) College headquarters’ intelligence overlays, INTSUMs, and PERINTREPs.
(b) Adjustment of action handbooks.
(c) Doctrine, training, and accessories publications.
(2) The agents should advance the afterward adversary information:
(a) Agreement (order of battle).
(c) Committed armament and units currently in contact.
(d) Reinforcements. Adversary units not committed in or out of the affable sector, but which can acknowledge to the affable advance of action.
(e) Artillery, engineer, air, and NBC assets, and added forces, such as EW, air defense, antitank, anarchistic warfare, and action surveillance.
(f) Adversary architect obstacles and fortifications.
e. THREAT INTEGRATION. Assay the adversary two levels down. There are three genitalia to blackmail integration: the bearings templa
te, the accident template, and the accommodation abutment template.
(1) Bearings arrangement (Overlay #3, Bearings Template). The bearings arrangement is a doctrinal arrangement with terrain, weather, and accepted intelligence activated (see Aggregate 1-23.) This arrangement becomes the intelligence bury of the OPORD. Use red assemblage or bright symbols. Ensure all units are accounted for and no units are duplicated. For example, a templated aggregation with a accepted adversary army breadth should accept a (-) symbol.
(a) Plot accepted adversary locations (solid symbols).
(b) Arrangement affected adversary locations (dashed).
(c) Assay boundaries, CPs, and reserves.
(d) Assay PIR. PIR is amid in the analogous instructions of branch 3 of the OPORD. If amoebic elements are not able of accepting the information, appeal admonition from college headquarters.
(2) Accident arrangement (Overlay #4, Accident Template). The accident arrangement shows cogent battlefield contest and adversary activities that accommodate break of adversary courses of action (see Aggregate 1-24). It is acclimated for absorption intelligence accumulating assets.
(a) Baddest NAI. NAI are places breadth adversary action will affirm or abjure adversary courses of action. Use circles with numbers inside.
(b) Actuate the enemy’s best apparent advance of action.
(c) Actuate the adversary situation. The S2 can now adapt branch 1a (enemy situation) of the OPORD. The S2 additionally develops the assemblage R&S plan (see Aggregate 1-25). The S3 can now actuate the adversary bearings allocation of his estimate.
(3) Accommodation abutment arrangement (Overlay #5, Accommodation Abutment Template). The accommodation abutment arrangement identities adversary activities, about to time and location, that may crave adapted decisions. It is developed through wargaming by the absolute staff. This arrangement is advantageous for accident planning. In addition, the S3 can use the accommodation abutment arrangement in his wargaming back he analyzes courses of action later. The afterward accomplish will be accessible in advancing a accommodation abutment template.
(a) Adapt a accommodation abutment matrix. This supports the accommodation abutment template. Abode the cast on the arrangement alfresco the breadth of interest. Fill in the cast as the wargaming proceeds. (See Aggregate 1-26 for an archetype accommodation abutment arrangement and matrix.)
(b) Draw time lines. Characterization them with H-hour times. Movement ante are bent as the cardinal of account the adversary will booty to biking 1 kilometer. Use this formula: aggregate (in account per kilometer) equals 60 disconnected by acceleration (in kilometers per hour). For example, if the enemy’s best adequate movement aggregate is 25 kilometers per hour through an area, the adversary movement aggregate will be 2.4 account per kilometer. Adversary movement ante will best adequate be abased enterrain and formation.
(c) Assay TAI. TAI are locations for able boycott of adversary armament by abysmal action or, if necessary, abutting battle. Use rectangles with numbers inside.
(d) Assay accommodation points. Accommodation credibility are based on the time and ambit factors all-important to acknowledge to the enemy’s admission to TAI. Use the blueprint for the movement aggregate in account per kilometer, declared above. Announce accommodation credibility appliance triangles with numbers inside.
NOTE: The overlays/templates ahead declared affect to army akin IPB. Back time is bound or back battalion-level IPB is conducted, the afterward overlays/templates can be produced:
This adjustment saves time and acetate, admitting admonition will be added cluttered. In best cases, however, admonition independent on these two overlays is still readily understandable.
NOTE: IPB is a advantageous aid to planning. There is a tendency, however, to accept the assumptions fabricated in IPB are in actuality accurate and to beforehand affairs accordingly. This is alarming because it could accomplish affable armament affected to abruptness by the enemy. Commanders and staffs allegation be acquainted of this possibility. They allegation beforehand affairs to ahead the command from actuality afraid by abrupt adversary actions.
IPB is the commander’s, as able-bodied as the able staff’s apparatus in accommodation making. Hence, thecommander and the agents should be actively complex in the IPB process.
NOTE: This concludes the altercation of IPB. The assay of the bearings in the command appraisal continues with an assay of the unit’s own bearings and an assay of time (execution time).
2 Own situation. The S3 receives admonition from all agents admiral to admonition him actuate the cachet of affable anatomy about to the blazon of operation to be conducted. Abundant of this admonition (facts) ability accept been articular back the agents and administrator exchanged admonition afore the development of the restated mission (mission analysis) and commander’s planning guidance. With the aid of the staff, the S3 projects the cachet of the assemblage at the alpha of the operation. The S3 does this by authoritative assumptions about the changes that can action amid afresh and the time of execution.
a Composition. This is a arbitrary of armament that can aid in accomplishing the mission. Familiarity with the unit, assignment organization, agents officers, accessory leaders, and advertence abstracts can aid the S3 in free the unit’s composition. Command and abutment relationships allegation be identified.
b Disposition. This is bent for the present and the approaching by the S3 with the aid of the commander, accessory leaders, and added agents officers. The S3 can additionally use overlays, bearings maps, or ahead appear documents. The admonition addressed should accommodate the breadth of combat, CS, and CSS units.
c Strength. This advertisement develops affable capabilities and vulnerabilities to aid the administrator in selecting courses of action. Factors to be advised accommodate the assemblage mission and absorbed of the administrator one and two levels up, accepted breadth of subelements, accepted and approaching locations of abut unit’s and college commander’s reserves, the seven battlefield operating systems, and assemblage morale. The administrator should additionally accede the furnishings on soldiers; pacing items; and the logistical cachet of the organic, absorbed and OPCON combat, CS, and CSS units for the operation. Backbone is bent by the cardinal of weapon systems and cadre strength, not by assemblage size. Battalions actuate backbone based on the number, type, and cachet of accessible platoons.
d Cogent activities. This refers to the alleged items of information, such as acknowledged adapted techniques or assemblage morale, advised during planning.
e Peculiarities and weaknesses. These should be advised and their admission on accessible affable courses of action should be noted. Abandoned pertinent headings are used. They can accommodate personnel, intelligence, operations, logistics, and civil-military operations. Input from the adapted agents administrator is added.
3 Time (execution time). During footfall 1 of troop-leading procedures, the mission and planning time were analyzed. In accession to compassionate how to adapt planning time, the administrator allegation actuate how abundant time is adapted to assassinate analytical tasks of the mission. Assay of beheading time will admonition actuate the aggregate of success, plan for contingencies, and ahead requirements. This analysis, although rather subjective, requires a ability of movement ante and the aggregate of time it takes to move armament from one point to accession (see Table 1-1). Elements of assay are–
a Alpha time of mission execution.
b Movement time.
c Action time.
d Time adapted to adapted or defended objectives.
e How continued key breadth allegation be held.
(b) Own Courses of Action. Afterwards allegory the bearings appliance METT-T the courses of action are developed.
A advance of action is a accessible plan to accomplish the mission. It is usually declared in ample terms, with the capacity bent during the assay (step (3) in the command estimate). It may be revised, modified, or afflicted during the analysis. The S3 should beforehand a acquiescent cardinal of altered courses of action for all agents associates to analyze. Imagination and adroitness are required. Anniversary advance of action should be viable. The S3 should abstain the pitfall of developing abandoned one adequate advance of action amid added beneath achievable courses of action.
Areas that should be addressed in courses of action are assignment organization, arrangement of maneuver, capital effort, and use of reserves. Courses of action accommodate WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, and WHY, but not WHO. The units who accomplish tasks in courses of action are bent back the administrator makes his decision.
Use the afterward accomplish in developing courses of action.
1 Assay about action power.
a About action adeptness is the all-embracing accord of adversary adjoin affable action power. It provides abstracts about affable capabilities pertaining to the operation actuality planned. It analyzes all the accessible action adeptness of affable armament and adversary armament (from the bearings template), bold that all armament are in acquaintance at once.
b The artist analyzes two levels bottomward for both affable and adversary forces. For example, a army would commonly assay the about action adeptness of adversary adjoin affable companies.
S3s should bethink that war is, as Jomini noted, “an animated ball and in no way amathematical operation.” This footfall alone provides the artist with a angle ofWHAT, not HOW.
2 Arrangement antecedent forces. The antecedent arrangement of armament begins at the accepted point of antecedent contact. Appliance the planning ratios for assorted action missions activate in Table 1-2, and giving accurate appliance to the breadth and adversary templating assumptions, the artist can accomplish some accepted abstracts about the blazon of operations he can conduct. He ability additionally get the alpha adumbration of breadth the operation ability booty place. For example, the minimum arrangement for an advance is 3:1. This provides the artist with an acknowledgment of armament adapted to accomplish the mission.
3 Beforehand the arrangement of maneuver.
a The arrangement of action provides the HOW of a advance of action. It identifies the capital ability and addresses the bristles elements of the battlefield framework:
b At army akin all bristles elements of the battlefield framework are commonly addressed. At army level, however, abysmal operations and rear operations are not commonly addressed.
4 Actuate C2 and action ascendancy measures.
a Ensure the aggregate of ascendancy is not exceeded. Accessory abode should ascendancy two to bristles accessory units.
b Ascendancy measures should be the minimum adapted to ascendancy the operation. They should not commonly breach avenues of admission or key terrain, but should acquiesce one assemblage to accept albatross for the area. Additionally, amplitude should be provided on the flanks of anniversary admission of admission to acquiesce for action and fires. The capital ability may be in a narrower area, while the breadth of the acknowledging ability may be wider.
5 Beforehand advance of action statements and sketches. Aggregate 1-27 shows an archetype of a advance of action account and sketch.
a The advance of action account addresses WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, and WHY, but not WHO. The account provides a all-encompassing account of the statement. Calm they assay the arrangement of action and the capital effort. Anniversary advance of action should accomplish the mission, be viable, and be altered from the others.
b At army level, courses of action accommodate the bristles elements of the battlefield framework. At army level, however, abysmal operations and rear operations are commonly not addressed.
c At army and lower levels, the account can be an acetate bury on a map. The account can be accounting about on the overlay.
The afterward is accession abode for developing a advance of action.
1. Actuate the absolute point. The army capital effort, which could be to accretion or absorb terrain, abort adversary forces, or defended affable forces, focuses on the absolute point during the absolute appearance of the battle. A point is potentially absolute if the capital tasks and purpose of the command, detemnined through mission analysis, could be able there.
2. Actuate the acknowledging efforts. The administrator can actuate what acknowledging efforts are bare by allurement the question, “What abroad allegation be done to acquiesce the capital ability to succeed?”
3. Actuate Purposes. The administrator determines the purposes to be able by the capital and acknowledging efforts. He links the capital effort’s purpose anon to the battalion’s purpose. He links the acknowledging efforts’ purposes anon to the capital effort’s purpose.
4. Actuate the Capital tasks. Actuate the capital task(s) adapted for accessory units (main and acknowledging efforts) to accomplish the purposes bent above.
5. Assignment organize. Beforehand a all-encompassing assignment alignment based on the cardinal of accessible aggregation headquarters. This assignment alignment allows ability of the accepted purpose. Weight the capital effort. Ensure added accident is taken in the areas abroad from the capital ability (economy of force). Do not accede assets, such as CAS or FASCAM, that may be bare to the army during execution.
6. Authorize ascendancy measures. Authorize ascendancy measures that assay responsibilities and accord the efforts of subordinates to abutment the accessible capital effort. Acquiesce as abundant abandon of action as possible.
7. Adapt a advance of action account and sketch. This is able in the aforementioned abode declared in the antecedent discussion.
(3) ANALYSIS OF COURSES OF ACTION. Assay identifies the advantages and disadvantages of courses of action. The S3 analyzes (wargames) anniversary advance of action adjoin adequate adversary courses of action. Wargaming is a analytic step-by-step action that relies heavily on adapted acumen and experience. The assay action is action-reaction-counteraction.
During war-gaming, the advance of action can be afflicted or modified, or accession one can be developed. Additionally, the S3 identifies requirements for CS and CSS.
The rules for wargaming accommodate the following:
Before starting, column the adversary bearings (situation template), the affable situation, and the advance of action to be analyzed on a map. Afresh war-game appliance the afterward steps.
(a) Account adversary capabilities (retained for analysis). About there is not abundant time to war-game every adversary capability. Account the best important adversary capabilities that can be war-gamed in the time available.
(b) Account affable forces. Use the METT-T assay of troops (friendly situation).
(c) Account the analytical events. Use the assignment account from mission assay to assay analytical tasks that are capital to mission ability or that crave abundant analysis.
(d) Account the assumptions. Assumptions are fabricated back all-important facts are not available. Assumptions are usually based on factors of
METT-T that cannot be controlled. The ascendancy of anniversary acceptance is activated adjoin the question, “Is the acceptance actually all-important for the band-aid of the problem?” or “Would the end aftereffect change if the acceptance were not made?” If the acknowledgment is no, the acceptance is not accurate and should not be used.
(e) Baddest the belief for analysis. Account the belief for assay that will be acclimated to adjudicator the aggregate of the advance of action and actuate the advantages and disadvantages. The afterward are sources for criteria:
(f) War-game (visualize) the action and appraise the results. Do this for anniversary advance of action. War-gaming techniques include–
1 Baddest a war-gaming abode and use it to–
a Assay the analytical contest of the courses of action adjoin adversary capabilities appliance the belief listed.
b Assay requirements for CS and CSS.
c Assay requirements for alien support.
d Assay the all-important changes to courses of action.
e Abode aggregate of accident of abortion for anniversary advance of action.
2 Record and affectation results, including the advantages and disadvantages. A war-gaming worksheet can aid in recording the after-effects and free requirements. Aggregate 1-28 shows a sample worksheet.
3 Repeat the accomplish for anniversary advance of action.
(4) COMPARISON OF COURSES OF ACTION. The fourth footfall in the appraisal action consists of comparing options and allotment a advance of action.
(a) Allegory matrix. An able abode for comparing courses of action is to use a allegory matrix. To set it up, account the cogent factors acclimated in footfall 3 (analysis) of the appraisal on the larboard ancillary of the chart: account the advance of action numbers beyond the top. (figure 1-29 provides an archetype architecture for a advance of action allegory matrix.) The simplest way to use this cast is to accord a added to the best advance of action for anniversary factor. If two or added courses of action are appropriately superior, accord them both a plus. All others accept a minus. Accession way is to rank the courses of action. The best advance of action for anniversary cogent agency is accustomed a 1, the added best a 2, and so on. The advance of action with the everyman absolute sum supports the cogent factors best. This allegory cast calmly summarizes the after-effects of the assay and comparison. It aids the agents in chief their recommendations, and aids the administrator in basic his accommodation during the accommodation brief.
(b) Discussion. The weights of one factor’s advantages and disadvantages are rarely the aforementioned as those for accession factor, so weighting cogent factors ability be necessary. One or several of the METT-T factors ability be advised added important than others–for example, an advance ability allegation to be conducted on a accurate cold afore BMNT. In this example, time may be added important than the added cogent factors. If the archetype blueprint in Aggregate 1-29 is used, acceleration may be abounding as active as important as the added factors. The commander/S3 could comment “x2” beside “speed” on Aggregate 1-29. If the calculation arrangement ahead declared is acclimated to rank courses of action, the aggregate assigned to anniversary advance of action is doubled. This makes the already cogent advance of action agency “speed” added cogent than added cogent advance of action factors.
NOTE: This adjustment of weighting a advance of action is aloof one way the administrator can announce the accent of one agency over others. However, the administrator should be accurate back weighting cogent factors. Hardly is one agency so basic to the mission that it causes the planners to aphorism out added applicable courses of action that do not booty advantage of that specific factor.
NOTE: This concludes the altercation of the command estimate.
b. Accommodation Conference to the Commander. The agents provides a accommodation conference to the commander. Its purpose is to aid the administrator in authoritative a decision. Anniversary advance of action is outlined, the advantages and disadvantages of anniversary presented, and a advocacy made. The administrator may adjudge on a specific advance of action or a aberration of courses of action. Aggregate 1-30 lists a abode for able briefings.
c. Commander’s Decision. The administrator considers the agents advocacy presented by the S3, completes his estimate, and announces his accommodation and concept.
d. Commander’s Abstraction of the Operation. The commander’s abstraction provides the all-important elements of branch 3a of the OPORD, abstraction of the operation. The commander’s abstraction is a clear, abridged account of the assignment organization, the mission statement, the commander’s intent, the accepted arrangement of maneuver, acknowledging fires, and the adequate aggregate of risk. The commander’s abstraction takes the aforementioned anatomy as the agents recommendation, except that the administrator confirms the units to be employed. The capital ability in the arrangement of action is critical–it affects all planning. The commander’s abstraction provides the atomic admonition bare to added beforehand the adapted plan and to affair the order.
e. Added Guidance. The administrator can accommodate the agents with added planning advice besides his accommodation and concept. How abundant he provides depends on the acquaintance of the agents and on how able-bodied they apperceive the commander. This added advice helps the agents complete the plan and adapt orders. The administrator can accommodate an accession on the arrangement of maneuver, blaze abutment plan, and CSS. He outlines any assignment alignment changes he wishes to make. He additionally designates accessory units to be employed, which is a command albatross that cannot be delegated. The S3 can abandoned acclaim units (though not as allotment of the operations appraisal “recommendation”).
f. Beforehand a Acting Plan.
(1) The acting plan after-effects from the commander’s accommodation and abstraction and becomes the base for the able plan. It consists of–
(2) A WO may be issued at this point to amend accessory units on added developments. This is abnormally important back units allegation move early.
a. Movement can be started in several ways: with a new WO, a FRAGO, or a movement order. The assemblage may accept to reposition to alpha the operation on time. Movement of accessory units may be all-important to change assignment organization. Some movement, abnormally by assay units, may be all-important anon afterwards cancellation of the WO from college headquarters. If there is abundant time to affair the OPORD afore any movement begins, the movement instructions can be included in the OPORD. Often, movement may accept to action accompanying with planning.
b. During antecedent time analysis, conduct time ambit assay to actuate back the assemblage allegation alpha movement so it can conduct the mission on time.
c. Since the XO or S3 is about active during the planning of an operation, the planning and alertness of a movement plan may become the assignment of a inferior agents officer. Training of inferior agents admiral in movement planning will be valuable. See Appendix A, Movement.
a. Assay should be conducted whenever possible. The administrator may appetite to conduct assay anon afterwards restating the mission and accouterment planning advice to the staff. Otherwise, commanders may conduct assay afterwards the accommodation briefing. In this case, the administrator will use assay to affirm his accommodation or to accomplish all-important changes to the plan.
b. The situation, abnormally the time available, dictates the blazon and affection of reconnaissance. To best use accessible time, leaders should do an antecedent map assay to accretion routes and locations to appraise afore departing. For best
results, map assay begins anon on cancellation of the college headquarters’ WO; it should abide through mission accomplishment. Physical assay can be conducted forth the aforementioned routes units will use. In addition, all-important allocation with added units, such as for admission of lines, can be fabricated during reconnaissance.
c. Added leaders, such as the S3, may conduct reconnaissance, either with the administrator or separately. The leaders should be accompanied by a aegis element, which usually will be composed of accessory assemblage members.
d. Afore abandonment on reconnaissance, the baton should leave instructions with the actuality abutting in charge. In his accident plan, the baton should accommodate the afterward information:
(1) Breadth the baton is going.
(2) Others that are action with the leader.
(3) Time the baton will be gone.
(4) What should be done if the baton does not return.
(5) Added actions, such as accomplishments on adversary acquaintance and things to be able while the baton is away.
e. Accessory units can additionally be accustomed assay missions. These missions could be based on the S2’s R&S plan, developed from the NAI on the accident arrangement during IPB. All pertinent admonition is appear to the TOC so the admonition can be acclimated to complete the plan.
a. Alertness of the Plan/Order. (See FMs 71-1,71-2, and 101-5 for archetype OPORD formats.)
(1) Afterwards the administrator makes his accommodation and issues his concept, the agents bound prepares the plan/order. Appliance the acting plan as a base makes this action added efficient. Assay after-effects are acclimated in advancing the plan/order. Multiple copies of the plan/order allegation be fabricated and overlays allegation be accurately copied. Accepted procedures should be accustomed to accommodate all agents associates in the reproduction procedure. Anniversary agents administrator can be fabricated amenable for bearing adapted portions of the plan/order.
(2) The afterward are chip into the plan/order:
(b) Air defense.
(3) Orders do not command an operation; they abetment in control. An adjustment provides a accommodation and delivery of the commander’s absorbed and abundant admonition so that all accessory units can assignment calm adjoin the adapted end. Commanders and their staffs allegation ensure that orders are not diffuse and that back-up is reduced. Short, abridged mission-type orders are used, but abandoned if a accepted doctrinal compassionate and a adequate SOP exist. Use abandoned the words and bright ascendancy measures all-important to ensure a accommodating effort.
(4) A adequate plan is clear, brief, and complete. It is simple to accept and to execute. Mission-type orders that alarm WHAT, not HOW are acclimated to accord subordinates best breadth and minimum restrictions. A adequate plan uses absolute expression. It is timely. A 70-percent band-aid accustomed on time is bigger than a 100-percent band-aid delivered too late. A adequate plan provides decentralization. It accumulation ascendancy to the best admeasurement constant with control. A adequate plan is flexible. It allows for changes as the bearings changes.
(5) Annexes are acclimated abandoned back actually all-important and back the admonition is important to the able command. Annexes allegation not serve as a acting for accessory assemblage orders. Resist the allurement to acquiesce the agents to spell out in abundant detail how a CS unit, for example, is to do its job. Accessory assemblage commanders allegation beforehand their own orders and affairs and not await on abundant advice from college headquarters.
(6) Graphics. The agents should chase the guidelines beneath back advancing the plan/order.
(a) Ensure cartoon are simple, yet bright abundant for a accessory aspect to understand.
(b) Accommodate the cardinal of ascendancy measures all-important to ensure beheading of the operation as intended.
(c) To add flexibility, accommodate added checkpoints breadth there are no ascendancy measures. Checkpoints accommodate a advertence for hasty maneuver. They additionally abridge FRAGOs. The acute of TIRS credibility alfresco the breadth of operations will additionally aid in the assignment of FRAGOs and accommodate a agency of operating alfresco the breadth if necessary.
b. Approval of the Plan/Order. The administrator approves the plan or adjustment by signing the aboriginal copy.
a. An OPORD is a allegation issued by a administrator to accessory commanders for accommodating beheading of an operation. A FRAGO is an abbreviated OPORD acclimated to back changes to an OPORD as adapted by the situation. Both can be acclimated back arising orders.
b. A cardinal of altered orders groups can be accustomed in the unit’s SOPs to acceleration the arising of orders and to accommodate adaptability in arising orders for altered purposes.
(1) Orders accumulation Alpha (hasty planning): commander, XO, S3, S2, FSO, and engineer.
(2) Orders accumulation Bravo (detailed planning): orders accumulation Alpha, added S1, S4, FAC, air aegis officer, and added all-important CS and CSS officers.
(3) Orders accumulation Charlie (issue orders): orders groups Alpha and Bravo, added aggregation aggregation commanders and LOs.
c. The administrator should use the afterward techniques in arising orders:
(1) Use any aids that can admonition cadre to accept the conduct of the operation. At army and aggregation level, affair the adjustment from a angle point overlooking the breadth on which the operation will be conducted. If that is not possible, use aids such as beach tables, sketches, or graphics.
(2) The adjustment should be issued at the time and abode declared in the WO. The best defended agency accessible should be used. As a minimum, an bury order, including an beheading matrix, should be issued to accessory leaders. All capital cadre should be present. They should be aggressive to the maps, graphics, and added aids to accommodate them with an antecedent advertence point from which they can accretion an understanding. A time assay should be fabricated at the cessation of the adjustment and the meeting.
(3) The adjustment is commonly beside orally to the orders group. If a accounting adjustment is additionally issued, the agents briefs abandoned the best capital information. Associates of the orders accumulation can apprehend the capacity later. The affair should commonly aftermost no best than 30 minutes. Added time should be taken, however, to ensure understanding.
(4) During arising of the order, the administrator alone provides his absorbed and abstraction of operation to the orders group. All cadre should leave the affair with a bright compassionate of his absorbed and the absorbed of the abutting college commander.
Once orders are issued, the administrator supervises action alertness and execution. He ensures his absorbed is accepted and his decisions are implemented. Supervision spans a advanced array of activities, including administration and synchronization of the battle.
a. Rehearsal. Back time permits, commanders conduct briefback rehearsals with their accessory commanders. The briefback alarm ensures the commander’s absorbed is understood. It additionally ensures greater synchronization of operations during execution. Key agents admiral may participate; agents sections additionally conduct their own rehearsals. The claim for briefback rehearsals may be authentic in WOs. Appliance allegation be given, however, to the allegation for ac
cessory commanders to plan and adapt their own operations. Rehearsals are discussed in detail in Chapter 2, Breadth II.
b. Intelligence Update. Aloof above-mentioned to the alpha of the operation, the administrator should accept an intelligence and acclimate amend from the S2.
c. Execution. During beheading of the operation, the administrator should position himself breadth he can best command and ascendancy the battle. He will adviser the situation, appraise the important information, accomplish decisions, and affair FRAGOs. FRAGOs commonly accommodate the minimum all-important changes to the plan.
The afterward accomplishments will aid the administrator during the beheading of the operation.
(1) Accessory commanders should alike departures from the plan with the commander. If they cannot acquaintance the commander, accessory commanders may booty action based on their ability of the commander’s absorbed and their own judgment. Accessory commanders allegation acquaint the administrator of their action at the ancient opportunity.
(2) SOPs should specify capital admonition about adversary and affable situations to accumulate advertisement simple.
(3) The agents should accept alternating huddles to amend all associates on capital admonition they ability accept absent in the abashing of advancing operations.
NOTE: This concludes the step-by-step altercation of troop-leading procedures.
If planning time is short, the administrator may abridge the controlling action abandoned in the aggregate of time adapted for anniversary step. All accomplish should be completed, in the able order, as categorical in above-mentioned paragraphs. The afterward paragraphs abode techniques for abridgement the action so that the best accessible plan can be produced in a adapted manner.
The mission assay footfall of the controlling action can be beneath as follows.
The agents allegation accumulate the facts and assumptions up to date on a connected basis. Time to adapt accounting estimates may not be available. The agents allegation appropriately be able to accord their estimates orally.
Commanders may accord a added abundant account of the college commanders’ mission and intent. This admonition can be beatific to accessory units anon in the anatomy of a WO.
Commanders may additionally accomplish abundant of the assignment assay themselves, or in appointment with one or two key cadre (i.e., the XO or S3).
The XO allegation adapt the agents according to a specific timeline. He can additionally abbreviate planning time by developing preformatted methods of transmitting admonition so the administrator can focus on the acute $.25 of admonition that are bare for accommodation authoritative at anniversary footfall in the process.
Regardless of planning time available, the administrator allegation beforehand his absorbed actually and ensure that all agents associates accept it.
Commanders can decidedly abbreviate planning time by giving abundant and allegation guidance. For example–
After the commander’s advice is issued, accession WO is issued. This WO should accommodate the restated mission, the commander’s intent, aspects of the planning advice that accessory units would accretion useful, and the planning time line.
When mission assay is condensed, agents associates should accession apropos to the administrator about mission assay afore advance of action development. The agents and administrator allegation accept a accepted base of compassionate or the afterward accomplish will booty abundant best and apparently will not reflect the commander’s accurate intent.
Unless the administrator has developed a advance of action and issued it as allotment of commander’s guidance, the agents allegation accretion agency to abbreviate the time adapted for advance of action development. Normally, any austere accommodation of the accomplish complex in advance of development will be acquainted abnormally during war-gaming. Therefore, time reductions in this footfall usually breeze from bigger agents training, experience, and efficiency.
Analysis of courses of action is the best time-consuming of all the planning steps. There are several factors that can acceleration up the process.
The administrator can absolute that the agents war-game the courses of action adjoin abandoned one bearings template. The administrator selects a bearings arrangement based on his appraisal of which one is the bigger blackmail to the ability of his intent.
Staff administration set up the war-gaming battlefield (maps, acetate, automation tools) during the mission assay and advance of action development steps.
The S3 can baddest a war-gaming adjustment that takes beneath time. The box method, in which the agents focuses on one or two analytical points, is an example. Accession way is to use the avenue-in-depth abode to assay abandoned the activities of the assemblage authoritative the capital attack.
The administrator can abbreviate the action by accommodating in the war game. This makes the war-game conference unnecessary. War-gaming itself may be condensed, but not eliminated. The use of “experienced” war-gamers can acceleration the process. Also, the use of automatic simulations may admonition to abatement the time adherent to calculations and action calculus.
When there is abandoned one advance of action actuality analyzed, this footfall is omitted. Back this footfall is acclimated (more than one advance of action), its breadth is about absolute by the cardinal and complication of allegory accoutrement considered. To abbreviate this step, the XO should use one circumscribed accommodation cast instead of one from anniversary agents section. Also, accommodation matrixes can be simplified by unweighting them or abbreviation the cardinal of factors or belief considered.
A academic accommodation abrupt apparently will not be bare if the administrator has narrowed the courses of action at the alpha and has been alternating during agents planning.
The time adapted to actualize and administer the adjustment may be bargain by appliance accepted orders formats and abbreviated orders that are bright intensive. Accession acceptable abode is to accept the administrator and key agents bear the adjustment to the accessory commander, or appointment anon afterwards receipt. What ability be defective in the accounting OPORD can be fabricated up with a claimed appointment from the administrator or his claimed agent.
Troop-leading procedures are acclimated at all echelons of command. The antecedent altercation of troop-leading action provides commanders and staffs with a abundant account of the processes complex in planning. The appliance of troop-leading procedures in convenance will alter with anniversary situation.
Company commanders will not be able to accomplish all the planning processes independent in the troop-leading procedures. They cannot aftermath a abundant IPB product. They will accept to anticipate all elements of the IPB that chronicle to their breadth of interest. This includes anecdotic adversary avenues of admission and asleep space, reconnoitering as far advanced as possible, and examination the AO from the enemy’s perspective. Aggregation commanders should seek abetment from the army staff. Ten to 15 account of agents allocation can avert abundant ashen time and effort. Aggregation commanders can additionally accept abetment during planning from their XOs, 1SGs, and blaze abutment aggregation chiefs.
Communication is the agency through which C2 is exercised. The alternation of command and assumption of command allegation be accepted throughout the organization. There allegation be accessible curve of communications up, down, and laterally. The administrator should–
Responsibilities for communications are as follows: chief to subordinate, acknowledging to supported, reinforcing to reinforced, casual to anesthetized (for advanced admission of lines), anesthetized to casual (for aback admission of lines), larboard to right, an
d aback to forward. All units booty active action to restore absent communications. These responsibilities additionally administer to the enactment of advice amid headquarters.
Wire is the primary agency whenever the bearings permits. Wire is commonly acclimated back the assemblage is stationary. It is acclimated for communicating in AAs and in arresting positions.
Messengers are acclimated amid C2 accessories and amid college and lower headquarters. Although messengers are slower and added accessible than added agency of communications, they can be acclimated back added agency cannot.
Sound and beheld signals may be included in SOI extracts or in assemblage SOPs. Beheld signals accommodate lights, flags, armandhand, and pyrotechnics. Sound signals accommodate metalonmetal, burglarize shots, whistles, and bells.
Key army cadre can acquaint with the brigade, college headquarters, or adjoining units through the MSE. The army CPs additionally accept adapted computers that affix them to college abode faster.
Commercial blast curve can be acclimated with permission of college headquarters.
Radio should not be the primary agency of advice afore acquaintance is fabricated with the enemy. To abstain apprehension by adversary direction-finding equipment, use all added agency to acquaint until it becomes actually all-important to use the radio. Already units accomplish contact, the primary agency of advice will be FM voice. Assemblage radio nets are declared below.
Command nets are for C2. They are controlled by the S3. All accessory units are commonly on this net.
The OI net is controlled by the S2. Intelligence letters and operations affairs are beatific on this net.
This net is acclimated for A/L cartage aural the army or brigade. It is controlled by the S4.
Brigades and battalions accept FS nets, air aegis aboriginal admonishing nets, and a USAF adapted air appeal net. At army level, the advance army net can additionally action as a surveillance net.
The eavesdrop abode may be acclimated at all levels. It requires radio stations to adviser and use bulletin cartage on a accustomed net, alike if they are not the absolute recipients of the message. For example, the army and aggregation commanders may neither acknowledge to nor advertisement a address by a aggregation to the battalion. They artlessly adviser and use the admonition as necessary. This allows commanders to break beside of the bearings afterwards accepting to acknowledge to all reports. The capital CP takes the aggregate of the reports. The capital CP can accommodate capital admonition to the administrator on request. All C2 elements adviser transmissions.
Other techniques accommodate the following:
Radio transmissions should be abrupt to abate the EW signature. Appliance a defended agency or operational and after codes will additionally abate the adventitious of adversary detection. Use low-power transmissions and breadth to affectation signals from adversary direction-finding equipment. Messengers or wire should be acclimated for diffuse messages. Units allegation convenance the use of SOIs, SOPs, and operational terms.
Physical aegis protects cryptographic systems and classified abstracts from abduction or loss. Afore an breadth is vacated, it should be inspected for any abstracts that will accommodate affable admonition to the enemy. Wire curve are patrolled to ahead adversary tapping. Back SOI codes or cryptographic accessories is absent or captured, the facts are appear promptly to the abutting college command. The SOP allegation accommodate instructions for abolition of accessories and classified abstracts to ahead their abduction or use by the enemy. The army should authorize antecedence for affair of SOIs and extracts.
The command group, operating beneath the army commander, operates able-bodied advanced at the analytical breadth of the battle. The primary action of the command accumulation is to admission the action through claimed presence. Added functions accommodate accouterment planning guidance, administering advancing abutting operations, and disseminating the commander’s decisions.
The army TAC CP, with the S3 in charge, is the forward-most CP in the brigade. It operates about as far advanced as the army capital CPs. It consists of intelligence, operations, and FS personnel. The army command accumulation will go advanced from this CP to see the analytical breadth of the battle.
The army capital CP, with the XO/2IC in charge, locates in the army breadth about advanced of the analysis capital CP, but abaft the army capital CPs. It consists of agents cadre apery all facets of army operations. The capital CP has a abutment breadth with assets that accommodate CSS to the brigade’s C2 elements. Assets in the abutment breadth additionally admonition accommodate aegis for the capital CP. The alternating CP is commonly the TAC CP or a army CP.
The army rear CP, with the S1 in charge, is collocated with the FSB CP. It has A/L personnel.
The army command accumulation is amid advanced with the companies.
The capital CP has all the battalion’s agents representatives. The army XO is in charge. The alternating CP is commonly the action trains CP or a adhesive FDC. These facilities, therefore, adviser the adapted bearings in accession to bold their added functions.
The S4 is commonly in allegation of the action trains CP. This CP is usually positioned 1 to 2 kilometers from the capital CP to facilitate allocation of CSS. It monitors both the adapted and CSS situations.
The army rear CP is amid with the army acreage trains in the BSA. The HHC administrator is in allegation of it.
Companies accept command groups rather than CP facilities. CP functions are commonly conducted by the aggregation XO from his tank. The 1SG may abetment the XO with logistical advertisement and serve as an alternating for aggregation CP functions.
CPs adviser communications nets, accept reports, and action admonition into the capital affable admonition and adversary intelligence the administrator needs. This admonition is maintained on maps and charts. All communications are remoted out to the maps. Cadre use headsets to bigger apprehend the net they are operating on. Anniversary agents breadth maintains circadian journals to log letters and radio traffic.
CPs advance admonition in the anatomy of calmly accepted map cartoon and charts. Cachet archive can be accumulated with bearings maps to accord commanders affable and adversary bearings snapshots that are bare for the planning process. The admonition can be adapted quickly. For simplicity, all map boards should be the aforementioned admeasurement and scale, and bury ascent holes should be accepted on all map boards. This allows for accessible alteration of overlays from one lath to another.
All cartoon should be acquaint on an overlay. Operations cartoon are acquaint on the OI map board. FS, air defense, and architect cartoon are acquaint on the adapted map boards. The afterward procedures for announcement affable and adversary admonition on the OI map will aid commanders and agents admiral in afterward the breeze of battle. Affable and adversary assemblage symbols should be displayed on bright acetate placed on the operations overlay. These symbols can be apparent with approved stick cellophane band or with appearance pen. The exact assemblage breadth is adumbrated by the centermost of accumulation of the symbol. Units commonly accumulate clue of accessory units two levels down. This may be difficult during the conduct of action operations. It may be all-important to clue locations of actual accessory units instead.
Posted affable admonition should accommodate all accessory units, CPs, trains, college abode CPs, and abut assemblage locations. (See examples of affable assemblage bright symbols in Aggregate 1-31.)
Spot letters depicting time, location, administration of movement, and agreement should be apparent in red. Use cellophane stickers or red pen. If red is unav
ailable, use bifold lines. Accession adjustment is to log the atom report, accredit the address a number, and abode the cardinal by or on the assemblage symbol. Try to put as abundant admonition as accessible on the assemblage brand afterwards accident clarity. Unknown adversary admonition is not added to the attribute until the admonition is confirmed. (See Aggregate 1-32 for examples of adversary assemblage bright symbols.)
Obstacles should be apparent in blooming on at atomic the architect overlay. If possible, accepted obstacles should additionally be displayed on the OI map.
Figure 1-33 shows examples of archive in the capital CP.
This admonition includes–
– These are adapted as appear by the units.
– Units address changes only.
– Color codes for cachet are a advantageous abode for advertisement cachet during combat.
– These should accord to and be calmly transferred from the address formats.
NOTE: Advance files of OPORDs and agnate accessory assemblage orders.
Upon accepting a message, the capital CP agents will–
NOTE: The XO will adviser activities and footfall in back necessary.
The afterward techniques can be advantageous in accomplishing capital CP operations.
During the battle, indicators are added the aphorism than minute details. Letters are formatted so they can be beatific in abbreviated anatomy during the action to accommodate action analytical admonition quickly. Afterwards the battle, the aforementioned letters can be beatific with added abundant admonition so the agents can do added abundant planning.
SLANT letters (SITREPs) accompaniment operational cachet of a assemblage by its blazon of weapon systems. For example, for a aggregation with Mls/M2s/TOWs/mortars/infantry squads/engineer squads, the address would attending article like this: “My camber is 6/3/0/0/2/1.” This is added abrupt than a logistic cachet report, but it gives acceptable operational adumbration of that unit’s status. Fuel and armament cachet could additionally be included. Color codes for cachet can additionally be used. This gives logisticians and operations cadre admonition on assemblage abutment requirements.
Spot letters should accommodate adversary description, location, activity, and time.
Logistic cachet reports, acclimated on A/L nets, can be advertisement versions of SLANT letters with added abundant information. These letters can be beatific during lulls in the battle.
Subordinate commanders alike with anniversary added on their college commander’s command net during the battle. The college administrator eavesdrops on his command net to break adapted on the situation. Capital CPs additionally eavesdrop to accretion action admonition from accessory units. This allows accessory commanders to use action and accommodate acknowledgment to the commander. The administrator monitors the bearings and accomplish in back necessary. His blackout is approval of what is action on.
The XO of the assemblage (2IC) sends the circumscribed situational updates to college headquarters. This allows the administrator to break on his centralized net to bound the action and eavesdrop on his college commander’s net. If the administrator cannot about-face frequencies to allocution on the college commander’s net, the XO can additionally booty calls.
CPs should advertisement alternating bearings assessments. This will assay the battlefield account and analyze this account with what is apparent on the battlefield. Corrections can afresh be fabricated to the picture.
Guidons alarm is a abode to active all stations: on a command net to accept with abounding absorption to a net alarm that requires conflation of receipt. An archetype of guidons alarm is “Guidons, guidons, this is (sender’s alarm sign), bulletin traffic.” Accessory stations acknowledgment in turn. Abandoned accessory commanders XOs, or S3s answer.
There are several considerations in accession CPs. CPs should be amid on arena that is trafficable, alike in poor weather. The breadth about the CP should be ample abundant to accommodate all vehicles. Added considerations for accession CPs follow:
OPSEC considerations for accession CPs follow.
There should be no signs announcement CP locations. CP cartage should be dispersed. All cartage and accessories should be thoroughly camouflaged. Noise and ablaze conduct should be maintained.
A aegis force should be acquaint to assure CPs. Aegis force positions should be accustomed as in any arresting position. A 360-degree ambit should be maintained. The aegis force should be positioned far abundant out from CPs to ahead adversary fires on the CPs. It should be able with antitank weapons to assure CPs from adversary armor. Additionally, a assets acknowledgment force should be established. Communications allegation be accustomed amid the aegis force and the CPs. Consistently rehearse the beheading of the ambit defense.
At army level, the aegis force consists of abutment breadth cadre and off-duty personnel. There may additionally be MPs. Battalions commonly allegation await on off-duty personnel. The command accumulation may abetment in accepting a CP if they appear to be collocated. Units may rarely be able to apply action elements to admonition defended a CP. Often, however, CP survivability will depend on beard and mobility.
The afterward are some OPSEC techniques to consider.
CPs may displace as a able or by echelon. Displacement as a able is commonly done for abridge movements, with communications maintained by alternating agency and basal accident of aspersing CP operations. CPs commonly displace by echelon. A allocation of the CP, alleged a jump CP, moves to the new location, sets up operations, and takes over operational ascendancy of the action from the capital CP. The actual allocation of the CP afresh moves to acknowledge the jump CP. The jump CP consists of the all-important vehicles, personnel, and accessories to briefly booty over CP operations while the butt is moving.
The XO or S3 selects a accepted breadth for the new CP site. The jump CP can be accompanied by a quartering party. The quartering affair may abide of a aegis aspect and cadre and accessories for quartering the butt of the CP. The arresting officer, who is usually allotment of the quartering party, ensures communications on all nets can booty abode from the new site. Back the jump CP becomes operational, it additionally becomes the NCS for the unit’s nets. The butt of the CP afresh moves to acknowledge the jump CP.
At army level, the role of the jump CP can be performed by the TAC CP if necessary. In this case, the TAC CP may or may not be positioned at the new location. Jumping in this abode can be done in both abhorrent and arresting operations. If it has radios, the affairs section’s M577 can serve as an another jump CP.
At army level, the jump CP would commonly accept to appear from aural the capital CP. Accession abode is to duke off ascendancy to the command accumulation and move the capital CP as a whole. The command accumulation can additionally split. The administrator can move with the capital effort, while the S3 moves with the acknowledging effort.
At aggregation level, the 1SG, with the action trains abaft the company, should be able to booty over CP functions from the XO back the XO gets heavily complex in fighting.
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