Developing and Application Models
Toolkit Overview Video for this Practice
Science generally involves the architecture and use of a advanced array of models and simulations to advice advance explanations about accustomed phenomena. Models accomplish it accessible to go above observables and brainstorm a apple not yet seen. Models accredit predictions of the anatomy “if . . . again . . . therefore” to be fabricated in adjustment to analysis academic explanations.
Engineering makes use of models and simulations to assay absolute systems so as to see breadth flaws ability action or to analysis accessible solutions to a new problem. Engineers additionally alarm on models of assorted sorts to analysis proposed systems and to admit the strengths and limitations of their designs.
See A Framework for K-12 Science Education, 2012, p. 56 for the absolute text.
1. From the accomplishments information, what new acquaintance do you accept about developing and application models?
2. In a 3-Dimensional classroom, what would this Convenance attending like?3. What questions did the accomplishments accession for you?
4. Unpack this Convenance by anecdotic the verbs and nouns in the description. Is your account agnate to this?
Developing and Application Models Podcast
NGSS @ NSTA
EXPOSING BELIEF QUESTIONS
1. What are your accepted behavior about this practice?
2. In what means do you anticipate you are application this practice?
3. What challenges do you see to application this practice?
Conceptual Change Activities:
Developing and Application Models Activity#1: Syringe and Plunger
Developing And Application Models Action #2: Actualize Your Own Baptize Cycle
Developing And Application Models Activity#3:Build a Bug
Developing and Application Models Action #4:Goldilocks Principle
Developing and Application Models Action #5: Measuring Atmospheric Pressure
Developing Conceptual Compassionate of Developing and Application Models Action Background
The purpose of the afterward activities is to appoint agents in the convenance of developing and application models. The accent is NOT on the action itself, but rather the conceptual change accompanying to the practice. Consumers of this Toolkit are reminded not to get captivated up in the activity, but rather always absorption on the conceptual attributes of the convenance to accretion added compassionate . Five activities accept been provided to appoint in anniversary Practice.
Since the afterward activities are NOT assignment plans, in some cases alone a abrupt account of the action has been provided. The facilitator should animate learners to absolute their own investigations and arbitrate alone as bare to redirect.
Developing and Application Models Action #1: Syringe and Plunger
General Objective: The purpose of this action is to accomplish a archetypal from the affirmation based on observation.
In this action we will beam the abnormality of a syringe and a plunger.
Materials: ample syringe
Each accumulation of acceptance is accustomed a syringe and a plunger. Acceptance are instructed to complete two tasks:
1. Fill the syringe with air and abode your feel over the end and beam what happens aback the syringe is pulled back.
2. With the end still sealed, advance the plunger in as far as you can and beam what happens.
Students again actualize models (drawings in notebook) to appearance the abnormality of what they anticipate happens to one air particle. Students will draw three models, one assuming a account of a atom of air in the average of the syringe aback abounding with air, one assuming breadth and what the distinct atom looked like aback the plunger was pulled back, and one with the plunger pushed in. In both instances the plunger alternate to its aboriginal spot.
The acceptance again allotment the models and call their models. Students may attempt with this abstraction because it is difficult to account one atom of air. It may be easier to appearance the accord amid particles, but attractive at one atom ability advice acceptance to accept the abstraction of compression and expansion.
Extension: Accept acceptance assay added to see what ability arise if baptize or bubbles were placed central the plunger.
From Starr & Associates, Educational Consultants
Developing and Application Models Action #2: Actualize Your Own Baptize Cycle
This action is acclimated to simulate how to advance and use models in the classroom.
Objective: Acceptance will apprentice the baptize aeon and altered states of matter.
Background: Baptize enters the watershed from a three date aeon that starts aback baptize avalanche from the sky in a action alleged precipitation. Precipitation begins aback baptize breath molecules become too ample and abundant to abide in the atmosphere (in the anatomy of clouds) and abatement to the arena in the anatomy of rain, snow, barrage or hail. Once precipitation has collapsed to the ground, it is calm in ample bodies of baptize such as lakes, ponds, rivers and oceans. Water at the apparent of these bodies of baptize heats up beneath the sun and evaporates. Evaporation occurs aback baptize transforms from a aqueous into a gas, ascent up adjoin the sky. Next, evaporated baptize condenses in the atmosphere. Condensation transforms baptize from a gas into a breath and becomes abeyant in the atmosphere; this is visually represented by clouds.
• Water Aeon Diagram (Transparency)
• Large allotment of paper
• Small cardboard squares
• Clear artificial cups
• Ice cubes
• Electric tea kettle
• Plastic wrap
• Science Notebook
Prep: Actualize Transparency from Baptize Aeon Diagram
1. Affectation the Baptize Aeon Transparency to the class. Ask acceptance to draw a archetypal of the baptize aeon in their science notebooks.
2. Ample artificial cups center with baptize and abode one cup on the student’s desk. Explain to the acceptance that this is aqueous water, apery the rain and basin baptize in the account of the baptize cycle.
3. Boil baptize in the kettle. Explain to the acceptance that the beef is baptize in the anatomy of gas alleged baptize vapor.
4. Accord anniversary apprentice some ice cubes and explain to the acceptance that this is baptize in a solid state. Accept them put the ice cubes in their cup of water.
5. Let the ice sit for a few minutes.
6. Aback the cups alpha “sweating” explain to the acceptance that this is abstruse and
ask what is causing the sweating.
• Large, empty, able-bodied bankrupt bind Jars for anniversary accumulation of acceptance or individuals
• Plastic wrap
• Rubber bands for anniversary jar
• Sand or dust to bandage the basal of the jar
• Plastic cup
Have acceptance abode a bandage of beach or dust at the basal of anniversary jar. Plant baby bulb in the jar and coffin artificial cup in clay to simulate a pond or basin and add abundant baptize to ample the cup. Put artificial blanket over the absolute aperture of the jar and defended with a elastic band. Place the jar in a warm, brilliant spot. The acceptance will see aerosol of baptize on the basal apparent of the artificial wrap. Ask the acceptance to explain in their science notebooks why this occurred. Ask acceptance to allegorize their jars and address observations absorption on the three states of bulk (liquid, gas and solid) and appointment the cant to precipitation, abstruse and evaporation. Further analysis would be to add an ice cube on top of the artificial blanket to see if it causes any change. Ask acceptance what the ice cube would represent in the atmosphere, and why it would account condensation.
Click http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids/drinkingwater/upload/activity_grades_k-3_watercycle-2.pdf for worksheet.
Using an aquarium, ask the acceptance to architecture a added astute ecosystem application moss, lichen and baby plants to investigate if the baptize aeon can sustain action ( i.e. terrarium).
Developing and Application Models Action #3: Build-A-Bug
General Objective: Students will actualize a archetypal of an insect to appearance how centralized and alien apparatus are capital for the action and adjustment of their archetypal insect.
**This clay action could be acclimated for assorted brand levels and with abounding assorted bacilli and groups of animals.
• Science notebooks
• Construction paper
• Tissue paper
• Markers, crayons, black pencils
• Aluminum foil
• Plastic wrap
• Pipe cleaners
• Encourage alone abstracts brought from home
1. Students charge basal accomplishments ability of the structures of insects, such as, exoskeleton, head, abdomen, thorax, antennae, and 6 legs and additionally the abstraction of specialization and adaptation. Student absorption can be alien by assuming examples of altered insects that abide in nature.
2. Using provided materials, acceptance are to architecture a new insect. Their models are to accommodate the all the accepted genitalia of an insect, forth with their own altered additions. Students are to accede adapted adaptations for their insect depending on breadth the abode is located.
3. Students can draw their insects in their apprentice notebooks and accommodate abundant labels. You can additionally accept acceptance call how their insect performs the afterward tasks:
• Defense adjoin predators
• How the insect changes throughout lifespan
• Survival in the ambiance conditions
• Unique behaviors
• Food consumption
Have acceptance address artistic belief or comics application their insect models as capital characters.
Build insects in added stages of their action cycles.
Developing and Application Models Action #4: The Goldilocks Principle: A Archetypal of Atmospheric Gases
Grades Targeted: 6-8
General Objectives: Students will accept that our two abutting neighbors, Venus and Mars, accept actual altered atmospheres than Apple does in agreement of burden and composition.
Students will be able to accept the “Goldilocks Principle” and accept that Earth’s abstinent temperature is due primarily to its altered atmosphere.
Background: On earth, two elements, nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2), accomplish up about 99% of the aggregate of clean, dry air. Most of the actual 1% is accounted for by the apathetic aerial element, argon (Ar). Argon and the tiny allotment of actual gases are referred to as trace gases. Certain trace atmospheric gases advice to calefaction up our planet because they arise cellophane to admission arresting (shortwave) ablaze but act as a barrier to approachable bittersweet (longwave) radiation. These adapted trace gases are generally referred to as “greenhouse gases” because a scientist in the aboriginal 19th aeon adapted that they action abundant like the bottle plates activate on a greenhouse acclimated for growing plants.
The earth’s atmosphere is composed of gases (for example, CO2 and CH4) of aloof the adapted types and in aloof the adapted amounts to balmy the apple to temperatures acceptable for life. The aftereffect of the atmosphere to allurement calefaction is the accurate “greenhouse effect.”
We can appraise the aftereffect of greenhouse gases by comparing Apple with its abutting all-embracing neighbors, Venus and Mars. These planets either accept too abundant greenhouse aftereffect or too little to be able to sustain action as we apperceive it. The differences amid the three planets accept been termed the “Goldilocks Principle” (Venus is too hot, Mars is too cold, but Apple is aloof right).
Mars and Venus accept about the aforementioned types and percentages of gases in their atmosphere. However, they accept actual altered atmospheric densities:
• Venus has an acutely abutting atmosphere, so the absorption of CO2 is amenable for a “runaway” greenhouse aftereffect and a actual aerial surface temperature.
• Mars has about no atmosphere; accordingly the bulk of CO2 is not acceptable to accumulation a abating aftereffect and the apparent temperatures of Mars are actual low.
• Mars is abundant added abroad from the Sun than is Venus.
Earth has a actual altered blazon of atmosphere. Our atmosphere has abundant beneath CO2 than Venus or Mars and our atmospheric burden is abutting to amid amid the two (1/90th that of Venus and 100 times that of Mars).
Many scientists accept that the agreement of our atmosphere is due to the attendance of life. Life acts to accumulate Earth’s atmosphere in a activating balance. In added words, if action were to absolutely disappear, eventually our atmospheric agreement could appear to carefully resemble Mars or Venus. Only with action always bearing oxygen through photosynthesis and removing and re-circulating CO2 does Earth’s atmosphere abide adequately stable.
This action introduces acceptance to the atmospheric differences amid the three “sister” planets in a clear and hands-on way. Students charge not acquire the actinic compositions and pressures of the three atmospheres; rather, the action should accord them an all-embracing acknowledgment of the important similarities and differences. Students will use this compassionate after as they activate to acknowledge the ambit and accent of the greenhouse aftereffect on apple and apprehend that rather than actuality a bad thing, the greenhouse aftereffect is analytical for the adjustment of the biosphere
• Colored affection balls, clabber beans, or altered black beans (or agnate materials) to represent gases in the atmosphere
• Re-sealable artificial bags
• Science notebooks
1. Altercate the “Goldilocks Principle.” Use the advice in Tables 1 and 2 to appoint the chic in a altercation of the greenhouse effect. If available, you may appetite to allotment illustrations or slides of Mars, Venus, and Earth.
2. After discussing the atmospheres of Apple and the added planets, ask the acceptance (in teams or pairs) to body models of the atmospheres of Apple and the added planets. Emphasize that models are analytical accoutrement for all-embracing scientists aggravating to accept phenomena too abroad to acquaintance directly
3. Depending on the actual available, ask acceptance to represent the atmospheric gases with altered black beans, affection balls, or clabber beans. (We will use jellybeans for examples in this activity.) They ability represent:
• Nitrogen (N2) with red jellybeans
• Oxygen (O2) with blooming jellybeans
• Argon (Ar) with amethyst jellybeans
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) with chicken jellybeans
• Methane (CH4) with white jellybeans
4. Apery atmospheric body with jellybeans is abstruse – if Earth’s atmosphere has 100 jellybeans, Venus will accept 9,000, and Mars will accept hardly added than 1/2 green (0.6). Suggest that the acceptance use 10 or 100 as the abject cardinal for anniversary planet. Let the acceptance apperceive what the absolute differences in body are.
6. Challenge the acceptance to aftermath a archetypal atmosphere for anniversary planet by agreement the adapted cardinal of jellybeans in three small, re-sealable artificial bags. The all-important advice is provided in Table 2. They will accept to construe percentages into numbers of jellybeans, and in abounding cases, will face the adversity of acid the jellybeans into baby abundant pieces to represent baby atmospheric concentrations.
7. Accept acceptance explain what they activate to the chic and address about it in their notebooks..
8. To extend this activity, you could booty one set of accoutrements and administer the capacity in areas abstinent to represent atmospheric burden of anniversary planet. For example, the jellybeans apery Apple ability be broadcast in a beat square. You ability accept to go alfresco to acquisition an breadth big abundant to represent the attenuate atmosphere activate on Mars. To apply the beans apery the abutting atmosphere of Venus, you could use a aliment processor or adhesive and abrade to apply the jellybeans.
1. Accept the acceptance affectation their assignment in the classroom and acquiesce time for them to beam and altercate anniversary other’s assignment as you circulate.
2. Accept acceptance acknowledge in autograph to the afterward questions in their science notebooks:
• Describe the atmospheric altitude you ability appointment as an astronaut ambience bottom on Venus and Mars.
• Name at atomic two means that the atmospheres of Venus and Mars are agnate to anniversary other, and one way that both alter from Earth’s.
•What new advice did you apprentice in this lesson? What did you already know? What was the hardest affair about the activity?
Developing and Application Models Action #5: Measuring Albedo and Altitude Modeling
Grades targeted: HS
General Objective: Students dispense clouds, albedo and carbon dioxide aural a computerized atmospheric model.
Students investigate and assay anniversary variables appulse on all-around altitude temperature.
Brief Details: Lessons arch up to this clay activity: Students complete the “Radiant Action Lab” and “Reflection and Absorption Lab” as bare to body accomplishments ability apropos action about-face above-mentioned to this action (lessons included aural the assets below).
Before ablution the “Measuring Albedo Simulation” I additionally comedy a abbreviate NASA video apropos Polar Ice Modeling.
1. In what means did this action change your behavior about developing and application models?
2. How difficult do you acquisition it to advance and use models?
3. Altercate your akin of aplomb forth the action of developing and application models.
INTEGRATION OF THE CONCEPTS
1. How do you currently advice acceptance advance and use models of science abnormality in your classroom?
2. Review a contempo assignment you accomplished and appraise the capability of agreeable acceptance in developing and application models.
3. What is the accord amid this convenance and others?
1. Ask a aide to beam one of your acquaint OR video yourself teaching and account the cardinal of questions YOU ask and the cardinal of questions STUDENTS ask.
2. Use the EQuiP Rubric for Acquaint & Units: Science to appraise a contempo science assignment you taught.
Learning Progression for Developing and Application Models
Elementary: Acceptance should be able to actualize “pictures” and or concrete calibration models to added abstruse representations.
Middle School: Acceptance should be able to use diagrams, maps and added abstruse models as accoutrement that accredit them to busy their own account or allegation and represent them to others.
High School: Acceptance should advance added adult models as they advance through their apprenticeship and clarify their models as their compassionate develops. (Framework, pgs. 58-59)
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